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Although human beings have been seeing strange things in the skies since the dawn of history, the idea that some of them are actually technological devices (called by some 'X Devices', although that term is now obsolete) is relatively recent.
Charles Fort 
The first person to suggest that mysterious objects and lights in the sky might be machines from another planet was probably the great American anomalist Charles Fort (1874-1932)

Charles Fort devoted 26 years of his life to compiling documented reports of scientific anomalies from journals and newspapers from all around the world. He lived in dire poverty so that truth could prevail.

Kenneth Arnold
It was not until the late 1940s that the idea began to gain a wider currency, following the famous sighting by pilot Kenneth Arnold over the Cascade Mountains in Washington State on 24 June 1947.
The UFO mystery has never gone away, and has certainly never been explained to universal satisfaction: indeed, it is now more deeply ingrained in the public consciousness than ever before, and the 'flying saucer' can truthfully be described as one of the great cultural icons of the twentieth century.
While sceptics would argue that the reason for this is a mixture of wishful thinking, the misidentification of mundane phenomena and out-and-out hoaxes, the truth of the matter is more subtle and complex.
It is certainly true that approximately 95 per cent of sightings can be attributed to stars, planets, meteorites, satellites, aircraft and so on; yet there remains the tantalising five per cent that cannot be explained so easily.
In order to illustrate this fact, we can look very briefly at one of the classic UFO sightings from the early days of modern ufology. (Although there are many impressive sightings from the 1990s, they are still the subject of intense debate and I believe it is more prudent to choose a sighting that has stood the test of time and is still regarded as almost certainly genuine.)
McMinnville UFO Photos
At about 7.45 on the evening of 11 May 1950, Mr and Mrs Paul Trent watched a large object fly over their farm near McMinnville, Oregon, USA.
Mrs Trent had been out feeding their rabbits when she noticed the UFO.
She called her husband, who was able to take two black-and-white photographs of it.
The photographs show a circular object with a flat under-surface and a bevelled edge; extending from the upper surface of the object is a curious structure reminiscent of a submarine conning tower, which is offset slightly from the vertical axis.
The bright, silvery object was tilted slightly as it moved across the sky in absolute silence, and presently was lost to view.
The Trents later said that they had felt a slight breeze from the underside of the UFO.
The Trents sought no publicity following their sighting (in fact, they waited until they had used up the remainder of the camera's film before having the UFO photographs developed!); they mentioned the incident to only a few friends, however, news of the sighting quickly spread to a reporter from the local McMinnville Telephone Register who visited the Trents and found the photographic negatives under a writing desk where the Trent children had been playing with them.
A week later, the photographs appeared in Life magazine and became world-famous.
Seventeen years later, the McMinnville UFO sighting was investigated by William K. Hartmann and was included in the famous (and, in the UFO community, widely despised) Condon Report produced by the US Air Force-sponsored Colorado University Commission of Enquiry.

Dr Edward U. Condon
The Condon Report (named after the enquiry's leader, the respected physicist Dr Edward U. Condon) was dismissive of the UFO phenomenon, which it considered to be of no interest to science, however, the report contained a number of cases that it conceded were not amenable to any conventional explanation.
One of these cases was the McMinnville sighting.
The photographs were submitted to extremely rigorous scientific analysis, after which Hartmann concluded: 'This is one of the few UFO reports in which all factors investigated, geometric, psychological, and physical, appear to be consistent with the assertion that an extraordinary flying object, silvery, metallic, disk-shaped, tens of meters in diameter, and evidently artificial, flew within sight of two witnesses.'
It cannot be said that the evidence positively rules out a fabrication, although there are some physical factors such as the accuracy of certain photometric measures of the original negatives which argue against a fabrication.
In the 50 or so years since the Trents had their strange encounter, the photographs have been repeatedly subjected to more and more sophisticated analyses, and have passed every test.
This case is just one of a large number of sightings of highly unusual, apparently intelligently guided objects, seen both in the skies and on the ground, that have been occurring for decades.
There are, of course, various theories to account for these sightings, aside from the sceptical notion that all are, without exception, hoaxes, illusions or misidentifications of ordinary phenomena.
The most widely accepted theory is, of course, the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH), which holds that genuine UFOs are spacecraft piloted by explorers from another planet.
This theory has the greatest currency in the United States.
In Europe, more credence is given to an alternative theory known as the Psycho-social Hypothesis, which suggests that encounters with UFOs and 'aliens' may be due to subtle and ill-understood processes occurring within the mind of the percipient.
Carl G. Jung
Inspired by the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl G. Jung, who examined UFOs in his book 'Flying Saucers A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Sky' (1959), the psycho-sociologists see such encounters as similar to waking dreams that fulfil an undefined psychic need. (To Jung, the circular shape of the UFO suggested a psychic need for wholeness and unity, represented by the mandala, a circular symbol identified by Jung as one of the archetypes residing in humanity's collective unconscious.)
There are a number of secondary theories for UFOs, including the idea that they are time machines from the future, that they are actually living beings indigenous to interplanetary space, that they originate in other dimensions of existence and so on.
The idea that UFOs are man-made, and based on plans captured by the Allies in the ruins of Nazi Germany at the end of the Second World War, has been put forward by a number of writers and researchers.

The Problem of the UFO Occupants

Any theory of the origin of UFOs must, of course, take into account all the available evidence, and this includes reported encounters with and descriptions of UFO occupants.
Having looked at the idea that UFOs are man-made aircraft inspired by designs developed by German scientists in the Second World War, we now find ourselves confronting material that would, at first sight, be sufficient to make the National-Socialist-UFO theory completely untenable.
For as soon as the UFO lands and opens its hatches, we meet a variety of creatures that are anything but human. (To be sure, some UFO occupants are described as being completely human-looking, (Nordic Aliens), but they seem to be very much in the minority.)
This has naturally led the majority of UFO researchers and investigators to conclude that UFOs are extraterrestrial devices.
Before dealing with this problem, let us illustrate it by examining briefly some of these alleged contacts with UFO occupants.
Over the decades since the modern era of ufology began with the Arnold sighting in 1947, people all over the world have claimed to have encountered an astonishing variety of creatures linked with UFOs on the ground.
In the 1950s and 1960s these people were known as 'contactees' and, according to their testimony, humanity had nothing whatsoever to fear from the ufonauts.
They were almost invariably described as being tall and strikingly attractive, with long, sandy-coloured hair and blue eyes, a description which resulted in their being classified as 'Nordic' aliens.

Nordic Alien - or Nord
Nordic aliens, or Nords, are one of several types of extraterrestrial featured in the UFO mythos.
Nords are described as resembling beautiful, taller than average humans with Nordic or Scandinavian features: pale skin, blue or green eyes and blonde hair. Nordic contacts, often from Venus, were frequently reported in the 1950s and 1960s, but declined after that.
Purported contactees claim to have witnessed the Nords beaming down from gold or silver coloured crescent-shaped UFOs or from gigantic bright cigar-shaped UFOs.
Many people believe the cigar-shape UFOs serve as a mother ship because there have been reports of smaller ships flying around it
Their spacecrafts are often said to be very fast-moving and can come in large numbers.
Several reports claim that these UFOs were encountered near mountains or forests and are rarely thought to hover over more urban settings.
Contactees' reports of Nordic aliens describe them as benevolent observers who are not allowed to interfere with Earth culture. They are rarely reported to have abducted or performed experiments on humans. Many people theorize they are humankind's long lost relatives that have travelled to other planets. Most Nordics aliens who are encountered on earth are males.
They mostly communicate telepathically.
They have reportedly been seen, however, to talk in a language of their own.
People claim the Nordics aliens live on the planet Telosia. Another group of Nordics aliens are said to be living on another star-system called Hyades.
They are sometimes known as Telosians, Hydeans and Pleiadeans.
They are also referred to as Venusians and Wingmakers.
One example of Nordic aliens in popular science fiction was the Space 1999 episode "Earthbound", which featured tall, blonde-haired humanoid aliens.
Some speculate that many UFOs are secret aircraft made by humans. If so, the "Nordic aliens" are the aircraft's human white  crew.
Description Extra-terrestrial Species: Nordics, Alpine, Aryans Aliases: Swedes, Telosians, Hydeans ,Pleiadeans, Venusians,Wingmakers, Space Brothers/Sisters aka Space People, Martians, Ancients,Masters, Ancient Astronauts, Atlantians, Earthlings, Neptuneons, Pluteons, Jupiterians, Mercuryians, Uranusians, Saturnians, Das Herrenvolk, Ubermensch( Overman/ Superman), Hyperboreans. 

George Adamski
The most famous of the 1950s contactees was George Adamski who, on 20 November 1952, encountered a man claiming to come from Venus. Adamski, a self-styled philosopher and mystic, was running a hamburger stand a few miles from the Mount Palomar Observatory in California when he had his encounter.
He was having lunch with several friends near Desert Center when they allegedly saw a gigantic cigar-shaped object in the sky.
Telling his friends to remain behind, Adamski drove into the desert, where he witnessed the landing of a disc-shaped 'scout craft'.

Adamski Scout Craft
When the ship's single occupant appeared, Adamski was able to communicate with him through a combination of hand signals and telepathy and learned that the Venusians (together with other intelligent races throughout the Solar System) were deeply concerned at humanity's misuse of nuclear energy (a theme that would be repeated again and again by the contactees).
In common with the other contactees, Adamski's claims suffered from scientific inaccuracies, not least of which was the utter inability of all the other planets in the Solar System to support intelligent humanoid life.
The contactee claims of the 1950s are rightly regarded as extremely dubious by most ufologists; however, in the decades since there have been a number of contact claims that demand more serious attention.
When we examine reports of encounters with UFO occupants (particularly since the early 1960s), we see that the defining characteristic reveals itself to be what has come to be known as 'abduction', in which witnesses are taken from their normal environment against their will and are forced to interact in various ways with apparently non-human entities.

Charlie Hickson and Calvin Parke
One of the most famous abduction cases occurred on 11 October 1973 on the shores of the Pascagoula River in Mississippi, USA. Charlie Hickson, 45, and Calvin Parker, 18, were fishing in the river when they witnessed the approach of a UFO.
The following day, the United Press International news service carried the following report:
Two shipyard workers who claimed they were hauled aboard a UFO and examined by silver-skinned creatures with big eyes and pointed ears were checked today at a military hospital and found to be free of radiation. ... Jackson County chief deputy Barney Mathis said the men told him they were fishing from an old pier on the west bank of the Pascagoula River about 7 p.m. Thursday when they noticed a strange craft about two miles away emitting a bluish haze.
They said it moved closer and then appeared to hover about three or four feet above the water, then
'three whatever-they-weres came out, either floating or walking, and carried us into the ship,' officers quoted Hickson as saying.
'The things had big eyes. They kept us about twenty minutes, photographed us, and then took us back to the pier. The only sound they made was a buzzing-humming sound. They left in a flash.'
'These are reliable people,' Sheriff Diamond said. 'They had no reason to say this if it had not been true. I know something did happen to them.'
The sheriff said the 'spacecraft' was described as fish-shaped, about ten feet long with an eight-foot ceiling.
The occupants were said to have pale silvery skin, no hair, long pointed ears and noses, with an opening for a mouth and hands 'like crab claws.'
Inside the UFO, the two men were placed on a table and examined with a device that resembled a huge eye.

Dr James A. Harder
Dr J. Allen Hynek
They were later interviewed by Dr J. Allen Hynek, the astronomer whose work as a consultant for the US Air Force's UFO investigation project, Blue Book, turned him from sceptic to cautious advocate of UFO reality.
Hynek concluded that Hickson and Parker were in a state of genuine fright.
Dr James A. Harder, a consultant for the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) who also investigated the case, described the UFO occupants as 'automata', or 'advanced robots', judging from the witnesses' descriptions.
Many people who are sceptical of UFO and alien abductions state, quite reasonably, that an advanced space-faring civilisation would not need to conduct the highly intrusive and traumatic experiments on human beings that their representatives are reported to conduct.

The repeated taking of samples of blood, flesh, sperm and ova from unwilling subjects implies a curiously primitive medical technology for beings allegedly capable of building interstellar spacecraft, however, there is an intriguing correlation between the atrocities committed by 'aliens' on their human victims and those committed by SS doctors during the Second World War.
W. A. Harbinson
As we shall see later in this chapter, proponents of the Nazi-UFO Theory, such as W. A. Harbinson, have suggested that this may be due to an ongoing (and for the moment highly secret) Nazi plot to create a master-race from the raw material of humanity in its present form.
One of the most impressive and carefully investigated abduction cases occurred on 26 August 1976.
Four art students, Charlie Foltz, Chuck Rak and brothers Jack and Jim Weiner were on a camping trip on the Allagash River in Maine, USA.
While fishing in a boat on East Lake, they watched the approach of a large spherical light that frightened them considerably.
The next thing they knew, they were standing on the shore of the lake, watching the object shoot up into the sky.
There was nothing left of their blazing camp fire but a few glowing embers, implying that they had been away for several hours although they only remembered being on the lake for about twenty minutes.
Several years later, the case came to the attention of the respected UFO researcher Raymond E. Fowler, who investigated on behalf of the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), the largest civilian UFO organisation in the world.
Fowler arranged for the four witnesses to undergo hypnotic regression to recover their lost memories of the evening.
Each of the men (who had promised not to discuss with each other their individual hypnosis sessions) recalled being taken into the UFO through a beam of light.
Once inside, they encountered several humanoid entities who forced them (apparently through some form of mind control) to undress and sit in a mist-filled room.
Their bodies were examined and probed with various instruments, and samples of saliva, blood, skin, sperm, urine and faeces were taken.
When the examination had been completed, the men were forced to walk through a circular doorway, whereupon they found themselves floating back down to their boat through the light beam.
Fowler later discovered that Jack Weiner had had an 'anomalous lump' surgically removed several years earlier.
The pathologist who examined it had been somewhat mystified and had sent it on for analysis to the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia.
At Fowler's request, Jack Weiner asked for his medical records and discovered that the lump had been sent to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) in Washington, D.C., instead of the Center for Disease Control.
When Fowler telephoned the AFIP for an explanation, he was told by the public information officer that the AFIP occasionally assisted civilian doctors.
'When Jack asked why the lump was sent to the AFIP rather than the Center for Disease Control, he was told by his surgeon's secretary that it was less costly even though Jack was covered by insurance!'
The Pascagoula and Allagash encounters display many of the hallmarks of the typical UFO abduction, the principal elements of which can be listed as follows:

(1) the initial appearance of the entities and the taking of the percipient;
(2) medical probing with various instruments;
(3) machine examinations and mental testing;
(4) sexual activity, in which the percipient is sometimes forced to 'mate' with other humans or even with the entities themselves;
(5) the returning of the percipient to his or her normal environment.

Although an extremely wide variety of 'alien' types has been encountered by people all over the world, one type in particular has become more and more commonly reported (particularly in the United States).
The so-called 'Grey' is now regarded as the quintessential alien being and is one of the most immediately recognisable images in today's world.
In the unlikely event that the reader is unfamiliar with this image, we can briefly describe the Greys' physical characteristics as follows: they are usually described as approximately four feet tall (although some are as tall as eight feet), with extremely large craniums and enormous jet-black, almond-shaped eyes.
They have no nose or ears to speak of, merely small holes where these should be; likewise, their mouths are usually described as no more than lipless slits.
The torso and limbs are described as being very thin, almost stick-like  and more than one abductee has reported the impression that they seem to be made of an undifferentiated material, with no bone or muscular structure.
Their hands are long and thin, sometimes with three fingers, sometimes with four.
In addition, the Greys are frequently reported to be rather uncaring in their attitude towards humans, treating us much as we treat laboratory animals.
Indeed, they have been described by some as militaristic and by others as hive-like in their demeanour, as if they had no individual consciousness of their own but were carrying out commands from some higher source.
It is clear that any claims of a Nazi origin of modern UFO encounters must take account of the bizarre creatures associated with the discs.
This problem might seem insurmountable in view of the fact that, while we may not expect the UFO pilots to be strutting around in black leather trench coats and jackboots, they would surely nevertheless be recognisable as human beings, however, the research undertaken by W. A. Harbinson may offer a way around this apparent impasse, as well as providing us with some extremely unsettling food for thought.
Harbinson's thesis, that UFO occupants may well be cyborgs - bio-medically engineered amalgamations of human and machine - is supported to a certain extent by medical research conducted since the 1960s.
Although this research was at the time highly secret, the gruesome details have since come to light in the form of books and articles that describe not only the nature of the experiments conducted, but also the frightening attitude of some members of the medical profession. 
According to David Fishlock:
'Even today there are people who believe that convicts, especially the criminal lunatic, and even conscientious objectors, should be compelled to lend themselves to science.'
Referring to 'The People Shapers' (1978) by Vance Packard, Harbinson reminds us of the direction in which medical research was heading more than 30 years ago.
In the Cleveland Clinic's Department of Artificial Organs, not only medical specialists, but 'mechanical, electrical, chemical, and biomedical engineers, as well as biochemists and polymer chemists', were, in their busy operating theatres, enthusiastically engaged in 'surgery connected to the development of artificial substitutes for ... vital organs such as the liver, lungs, pancreas, and kidneys'.
Conveniently within walking distance of the Cleveland Clinic's Department of Artificial Organs are the Neurosurgical Research Laboratories of the Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, where great interest was being expressed, as far back as 1967, in the possibility of transferring the entire head of one human being to another.
Switching human brains from one head to another would be complicated and costly, but, as Packard explains:
'By simply switching heads, on the other hand, only a few connections need to be severed and then re-established in the neck of the recipient body.'
This procedure was successfully carried out on monkeys at the Cleveland Clinic, with each head apparently retaining its original mental characteristics when attached to its new body.
In other words, if a monkey had been aggressive before the operation, it would remain so when its head was transplanted to another body.
The eyes of the monkeys followed people as they walked past, implying that the heads retained some level of awareness.
The unfortunate subjects of these procedures only lived for about one week.
Of course, the main problem in a procedure of this kind would be the regeneration of the severed spinal cord so that the brain could send nerve impulses to its new body; and yet even this feat seems not to be outside the bounds of possibility.
In June 1976, a Soviet scientist named Levon A. Matinian 'reported from the fourth biennial conference on Regeneration of the Central Nervous System that he had succeeded in regrowing the spinal cords of rats'.
Harbinson suggests, almost certainly with some justification, that this area of research must have been continued 'behind closed doors' at military and scientific establishments since then.
It is surely reasonable to suppose that, if this is the case, scientists have progressed well beyond the level of rats.
One can be forgiven for wondering what conceivable use such barbaric experiments could possibly have for humanity.
While it is mercifully unlikely that head transplants will ever be in vogue, such research undoubtedly holds much potential for the enhancement of human beings who will eventually conduct routine work in hostile environments, such as the ocean floor and outer space.
Fusion of a sort between human and machine has already been achieved, in the form of the so-called Cybernetic Anthropomorphous Machine System (CAMS), 'slave' machinery that mimics the movement of its human operators.
According to Harbinson: In an aerospace conference given in Boston in 1966, engineer William E. Bradley, who developed the idea of cable-less man-machine manipulator systems for the US Defense Department's Institute for Defense Analysis, stated his belief that man and machine would eventually be linked in such a way that by performing the manoeuvres himself, the man would cause them to take place, through the machine, at a distance of thousands of miles.
This concept soon led to the weapon-aiming system devised by the Philco Corporation for the US Air Force, in which the pilot's helmet is coupled with a servo-system that enables him to aim and fire his weapons automatically by merely swivelling his head until a camera located in his helmet shows the target.
In addition, as early as 1967 US Air Force scientists had succeeded in transmitting thought impulses to a computer using a variation on Morse code composed of long and short bursts of alpha waves (alpha waves are produced by the brain when it is at rest).
This technology has developed to the point where today we have the potential for amputees to control their prosthetic limbs by means of nerve impulses directly from the brain.
In the field of organ transplantation, we have seen astonishing progress over the last 30 years and it is surely not rash to suggest that we will soon see artificial hearts and other organs routinely replacing those damaged through illness or accident.
Likewise, in spite of concerns regarding the ethical implications of human cloning, we may also see the day when human organs are produced in the laboratory, ready for transplanting when the need arises.
In view of the fact that research conducted under the aegis of national security is between ten and twenty years ahead of what is made public at any particular time (work on the Stealth fighter began in the mid-1970s, although the public were not made aware of its existence until the late 1980s), it is possible - perhaps likely - that advances in the field of medical and bioengineering research have already extended into the realm of what the public would consider science fiction.
Harbinson believes that what the public knows is merely the tip of the iceberg, and reminds us that 'the US Navy, Air Force, Army and government agencies such as NASA - all with top-secret research establishments in the White Sands Proving Ground and similar areas - have a particular need for advanced man-machine manipulations or cyborgs'.
He adds that the creatures seen in and around landed UFOs could be such cyborgs: human beings radically augmented by sophisticated mechanical prosthetics.
Theoretically, the lungs of such creatures would be partially collapsed and the blood in them artificially cooled.
The cyborgs' respiration and other bodily functions would then be controlled cybernetically with artificial lungs and sensors which maintain constant temperature, metabolism and pressure, irrespective of external environmental fluctuations - thus, even if not protected by an antigravity (or gravitic) propulsion system, they would not be affected by the extraordinary accelerations and direction changes of their craft.
The cyborgs would have no independent will, but could be remote-controlled, both physically and mentally, even across great distances, by computer-linked brain implants.
Since this operation would render the mouth and nose superfluous, these would be sealed ... and completely non-functioning.
If we remember the basic description of the Greys noted earlier, with their slit-like and apparently useless mouths, vestigial noses and thin torsos, we can begin to see a frightening correspondence with the theoretical cyborg, a nightmarish combination of genetically engineered biology, and highly sophisticated machine.
To a startled, disorientated and terrified UFO witness, such a creature would surely look like nothing on earth ... would look, in fact, like an extraterrestrial alien.
Interestingly, many people claiming to have encountered UFO crews mention the presence of normal-looking humans, (usually Nordics) alongside the bizarre entities.
Some ufologists suggest that these human types are the Nordic aliens mentioned earlier, working alongside the Greys, and perhaps forming part of some interplanetary federation; other, more conspiracy-minded researchers believe that the human types are just that: human beings who are in league with a hostile alien occupation force.
There is, however, another possibility, based on the information we have just considered.
It is conceivable that the humans seen on board UFOs are actually the controllers of the Greys/clone/cyborgs.
It is also conceivable that these humans are members of an ultra-secret group, existing completely independently of any nation on Earth, and perhaps hostile to all nations and all other humans.
Conceivable, yes - but true ?

INTERRUPTED JOURNEY - the Case of Betty and Barney Hill

the Case of Betty and Barney Hill
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Betty and Barney Hill were an American couple who claimed to have been abducted by extraterrestrials in a rural portion of New Hampshire on September 19–20, 1961.

The couple's story, called the Hill Abduction, and occasionally the Zeta Reticuli Incident, was that they had been kidnapped for a short time by a UFO.

Theirs was the first widely-publicized claim of alien abduction, adapted into the best-selling 1966 book The Interrupted Journey and the 1975 television film 'The UFO Incident'.
Its importance is such that many of Betty Hill's notes, tapes, and other items have been placed in a permanent collection at the University of New Hampshire, her alma mater.
As of July 2011, the site of the alleged craft's first close approach is marked by a state historical marker.


Portsmouth - New Hampshire - 1950s
The Hills lived in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Barney (1922–1969) was employed by the U.S. Postal Service, while Betty (1919–2004) was a social worker.
Active in a Unitarian congregation, the Hills were also members of the NAACP and community leaders, and Barney sat on a local board of the U.S. Civil Rights Commission.
They were an interracial couple at a time when it was particularly unusual in the United States; Barney was black and Betty was white.

The UFO encounter

According to a variety of reports given by the Hills, the alleged UFO sighting happened on September 19, 1961, at around 10:30 p.m.

Lancaster  - New Hampshire - 1950s
The Hills were driving back to Portsmouth from a vacation in Niagara Falls and Montreal, Quebec, Canada. There were only a few other cars on the road as they made their way home to New Hampshire's seacoast. Just south of Lancaster, New Hampshire, Betty claimed to have observed a bright point of light in the sky that moved from below the moon and the planet Jupiter, upward to the west of the moon.
While Barney navigated U.S. Route 3, Betty reasoned that she was observing a falling star, only it moved upward, like a plane or a satellite.
Since it moved erratically and grew bigger and brighter, Betty urged Barney to stop the car for a closer look, as well as to walk their dog, Delsey.
Barney stopped at a scenic picnic area just south of Twin Mountain.
Worried about the presence of bears, Barney retrieved a pistol that he had concealed in the trunk of the car.
Betty, through binoculars, observed an "odd shaped" craft flashing multicolored lights travel across the face of the moon.
Because her sister had confided to her about having a flying saucer sighting several years earlier, Betty thought it might be what she was observing.
Through binoculars Barney observed what he reasoned was a commercial airliner traveling toward Vermont on its way to Montreal, however, he soon changed his mind, because without looking as if it had turned, the craft rapidly descended in his direction.
This observation caused Barney to realize, "this object that was a plane was not a plane."
He quickly returned to the car and drove toward Franconia Notch, a narrow, mountainous stretch of the road.
The Hills claimed that they continued driving on the isolated road, moving very slowly through Franconia Notch in order to observe the object as it came even closer.
At one point the object passed above a restaurant and signal tower on top of Cannon Mountain. It passed over the mountain and came out near the 48' profile of the Old Man of the Mountain.
Betty testified that it was at least one and a half times the length of the granite profile and seemed to be rotating.
The couple watched as the silent, lighted craft moved erratically and bounced back and forth in the night sky.
As they drove along Route 3 through Franconia Notch, they stated that it seemed to be playing a game of cat and mouse with the couple.
1957 Chevrolet Bel Air
Approximately one mile south of Indian Head, they said, the object rapidly descended toward their vehicle causing Barney to stop directly in the middle of the highway.
The huge, silent craft hovered approximately 80–100 feet above the Hills' 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air and filled the entire field of the windshield.
It reminded Barney of a huge pancake. Carrying his pistol in his pocket, he stepped away from the vehicle and moved closer to the object.
Using the binoculars, Barney claimed to have seen about 8 to 11 humanoid figures who were peering out of the craft's windows, seeming to look at him.
In unison, all but one figure moved to what appeared to be a panel on the rear wall of the hallway that encircled the front portion of the craft.
The one remaining figure continued to look at Barney and communicated a message telling him to "stay where you are and keep looking."
Barney had a conscious, continuous recollection of observing the humanoid forms wearing glossy black uniforms and black caps.
Red lights on what appeared to be bat-wing fins began to telescope out of the sides of the craft and a long structure descended from the bottom of the craft.
The silent craft approached to what Barney estimated was within 50–80 feet overhead and 300 feet away from him. On October 21, 1961, Barney reported to NICAP Investigator Walter Webb, that the "beings were somehow not human".
Barney tore the binoculars away from his eyes and ran back to his car. In a near hysterical state, he told Betty, "They're going to capture us!"
He saw the object again shift its location to directly above the vehicle.
He drove away at high speed, telling Betty to look for the object.
She rolled down the window and looked up, but saw only darkness above them, even though it was a bright, starry night.
Almost immediately the Hills heard a rhythmic series of beeping or buzzing sounds which they said seemed to bounce off the trunk of their vehicle.
The car vibrated and a tingling sensation passed through the Hills' bodies
 Betty touched the metal on the passenger door expecting to feel an electric shock, but felt only the vibration. The Hills said that at this point in time they experienced the onset of an altered state of consciousness that left their minds dulled.
A second series of codelike beeping or buzzing sounds returned the couple to full consciousness.
They found that they had traveled nearly 35 miles south but had only vague, spotty memories of this section of road.
They recalled making a sudden unplanned turn, encountering a roadblock, and observing a fiery orb in the road.

Immediate Aftermath

Arriving home at about dawn, the Hills assert that they had some odd sensations and impulses they could not readily explain: Betty insisted that their luggage be kept near the back door rather than in the main part of the house. Their watches would never run again.
Barney noted that the leather strap for the binoculars was torn, though he could not recall it tearing.
The toes of his best dress shoes were inexplicably scraped.
Barney says he was compelled to examine his genitals in the bathroom, though he found nothing unusual.
They took long showers to remove possible contamination and each drew a picture of what they had observed.
Their drawings were strikingly similar.
Perplexed, the Hills say they tried to reconstruct the chronology of events as they witnessed the UFO and drove home, but immediately after they heard the buzzing sounds their memories became incomplete and fragmented.
They vaguely recalled a luminous moon shape sitting on the road. Barney recalled saying "Oh no, not again". Betty thought Barney had taken a sharp left turn off Route 3.
After sleeping for a few hours, Betty awoke and placed the shoes and clothing she had worn during the drive into her closet, observing that the dress was torn at the hem, zipper and lining.
Later, when she retrieved the items from her closet, she noted a pinkish powder on her dress.
She hung the dress on her clothesline and the pink powder blew away, but the dress was irreparably damaged.
She threw it away, but then changed her mind, retrieving the dress and hanging it in her closet.
Over the years, five laboratories have conducted chemical and forensic analyses on the dress.
There were shiny, concentric circles on their car's trunk that had not been there the previous day.

Pease Air Force Base
Betty and Barney experimented with a compass, noting that when they moved it close to the spots, the needle would whirl rapidly, but when they moved it a few inches away from the shiny spots, it would drop down.

Initial Report to the U.S. Air Force and NICAP

On September 21, Betty telephoned Pease Air Force Base to report their UFO encounter, though for fear of being labeled eccentric, she withheld some of the details.
On September 22, Major Paul W. Henderson telephoned the Hills for a more detailed interview.
Henderson's report, dated September 26, determined that the Hills had probably misidentified the planet Jupiter. (This was later changed to "optical condition", "inversion" and "insufficient data.") (Report 100-1-61, Air Intelligence Information Record).

His report was forwarded to Project Blue Book, the U.S. Air Force's UFO research project.
Within days of the encounter, Betty borrowed a UFO book from a local library.
It had been written by retired Marine Corps Major Donald E. Keyhoe, who was also the head of NICAP, a civilian UFO research group.
On September 26, Betty wrote to Keyhoe.
She related the full story, including the details about the humanoid figures that Barney had observed through binoculars.
Betty wrote that she and Barney were considering hypnosis to help recall what had happened.
Her letter was eventually passed on to Walter N. Webb, a Boston astronomer and NICAP member.
Walter N Webb
Webb met with the Hills on October 21, 1961.
In a six-hour interview, the Hills related all they could remember of the UFO encounter.
Barney asserted that he had developed a sort of "mental block" and that he suspected there were some portions of the event that he did not wish to remember.
He described in detail all that he could remember about the craft and the appearance of the "somehow not human" figures aboard the craft.
Webb stated that "they were telling the truth and the incident probably occurred exactly as reported except for some minor uncertainties and technicalities that must be tolerated in any such observations where human judgment is involved (e.g., exact time and length of visibility, apparent sizes of object and occupants, distance and height of object, etc.)."

Betty's Dreams

Ten days after the UFO encounter, Betty began having a series of vivid dreams.
They continued for five successive nights.
Never in her memory had she recalled dreams in such detail and intensity, but they stopped abruptly after five nights and never returned again.
They occupied her thoughts during the day.
When she finally did mention them to Barney, he was sympathetic, but not too concerned, and the matter was dropped.
Betty did not mention them to Barney again.
In November 1961, Betty began writing down the details of her nightmarish dreams.
In one dream, she and Barney encountered a roadblock and men who surrounded their car.
She lost consciousness but struggled to regain it.
She then realized that she was being forced by two small men to walk in a forest in the nighttime, and of seeing Barney walking behind her, though when she called to him, he seemed to be in a trance or sleepwalking.
The men stood about five feet to five feet four inches tall, and wore matching uniforms, with caps similar to those worn by military cadets.
They appeared nearly human with black hair, long noses, lips and ears, but had a grayish pallor and bluish lips.
In the dreams, Betty, Barney, and the men walked up a ramp into a disc-shaped craft of metallic appearance. Once inside, Barney and Betty were separated.
She protested, and was told by a man she called "the leader" that if she and Barney were examined together, it would take much longer to conduct the exams.
She and Barney were then taken to separate rooms.
Betty then dreamt that a new man, similar to the others, entered to conduct her exam with the leader. Betty called this new man "the examiner" and said he had a pleasant, calm manner.
Though the leader and the examiner spoke to her in English, the examiner's command of the language seemed imperfect and she had difficulty understanding him.
The examiner told Betty that he would conduct a few tests to note the differences between humans and the craft's occupants.
He seated her on a chair, and a bright light was shone on her.
The man cut off a lock of Betty's hair.
He examined her eyes, ears, mouth, teeth, throat and hands.
He saved trimmings from her fingernails.
After examining her legs and feet, the man then used a dull knife, similar to a letter opener to scrape some of her skin onto what resembled cellophane.
He then tested her nervous system and he thrust the needle into her navel, which caused Betty agonizing pain. But the leader waved his hand in front of her eyes and the pain vanished.
The examiner left the room and Betty engaged in conversation with the "leader".
She picked up a book with rows of strange symbols that the "leader" said she could take home with her.
She also asked where he was from, and he pulled down an instructional map dotted with stars.
In Betty's dream account, the men began escorting the Hills from the ship when a disagreement broke out. The leader then informed Betty that she couldn't keep the book, stating that they had decided that the other men did not want her to even remember the encounter.
Betty insisted that no matter what they did to her memory, she would one day recall the events.
She and Barney were taken to their car, where the leader suggested that they wait to watch the craft's departure.
They did so, then resumed their drive.

Medical help and more interviews 

Missing Time 

On November 25, 1961, the Hills were again interviewed at length by NICAP members, this time C.D. Jackson and Robert E. Hohman.
Having read Webb's initial report, Jackson and Hohman had many questions for the Hills.
One of their main questions was about the length of the trip.
Neither Webb nor the Hills had noted that, though the drive should have taken about four hours, they did not arrive at home until seven hours after their departure.
When Hohman and Jackson noted this discrepancy to the Hills, the couple had no explanation (a frequently reported circumstance in alleged alien abduction cases that some have called "missing time").
As Clark writes, despite "all their efforts the Hills could recall almost nothing of the 35 miles between Indian Head and Ashland. Although Betty's recall was somewhat fuller than Barney's, both were able to recall an image of a fiery orb sitting on the ground.
Betty and Barney reasoned that it must have been the moon, but Hohman and Jackson informed them that the moon had set earlier in the evening.

White Mountains - New Hampshire
The subject of hypnosis came up.
Perhaps hypnosis could unlock the missing memories.
Barney was apprehensive about hypnosis, but thought it might help Betty put to rest what Barney described as the 'nonsense' about her dreams."
By February 1962, the Hills were making frequent weekend drives to the White Mountains, hoping that revisiting the site might spark more memories.
They were unsuccessful in trying to locate the site where they observed a fiery orb sitting in the road. However, they were able to eliminate several possible routes. (They found the "capture" site on Labor Day weekend in 1965.)

Private Disclosure

On November 23, 1962, the Hills attended a meeting at the parsonage of their church where the invited guest speaker was Captain Ben H. Swett of the U.S. Air Force, who had recently published a book of his poetry. After he read selections of his poetry, the pastor asked him to discuss his personal interest in hypnosis.
After the meeting broke up, the Hills approached Captain Swett privately and told him what they could remember of their strange encounter.
He was particularly interested in the "missing time" of the Hills' account.
The Hills asked Swett if he would hypnotize them to recover their memories, but Swett said he was not qualified to do that and cautioned them against going to an amateur hypnotist, such as himself.

First public Disclosure

On March 3, 1963, the Hills first publicly discussed the UFO encounter with a group at their church.
On September 7, 1963, Captain Swett gave a formal lecture on hypnosis to a meeting at the Unitarian Church.
After the lecture, the Hills told him that Barney was going to a psychiatrist, Dr. Stephens, whom he liked and trusted.
Captain Swett suggested that Barney ask Dr. Stephens about the use of hypnosis in his case.

Dr Benjamin Simon
When Barney next met with Dr. Stephens, he asked about hypnosis.
Stephens referred the Hills to Dr. Benjamin Simon of Boston.
On November 3, 1963, the Hills spoke before an amateur UFO study group, the Two State UFO Study Group, in Quincy Center, Massachusetts.
The Hills first met Dr. Simon on December 14, 1963.
Early in their discussions, Simon determined that the UFO encounter was causing Barney far more worry and anxiety than he was willing to admit.
Though Simon dismissed the popular extraterrestrial hypothesis as impossible, it seemed obvious to him that the Hills genuinely thought they had witnessed a UFO with human-like occupants.
Simon hoped to uncover more about the experience through hypnosis.
Dr. Simon's hypnosis sessions Simon began hypnotizing the Hills on January 4, 1964.
He hypnotized Betty and Barney several times each, and the sessions lasted until June 6, 1964.
Simon conducted the sessions on Barney and Betty separately, so they could not overhear one another's recollections.
At the end of each session he reinstated amnesia.

Barney's Sessions

Simon hypnotized Barney first.
His recall of witnessing non-human figures was quite emotional, punctuated with expressions of fear, emotional outbursts and incredulity. 
Barney said that, due to his fear, he kept his eyes closed for much of the abduction and physical examination. Based on these early responses, Simon told Barney that he would not remember the hypnosis sessions until he was certain he could remember them without being further traumatized.
Under hypnosis (as was consistent with his conscious recall), Barney reported that the binocular strap had broken when he ran from the UFO back to his car.
He recalled driving the car away from the UFO, but that afterwards he felt irresistibly compelled to pull off the road, and drive into the woods.
He eventually sighted six men standing in the dirt road.
The car stalled and three of the men approached the car.
They told Barney to not fear them.
He was still anxious, however, and he reported that the leader told Barney to close his eyes.
While hypnotized, Barney said, "I felt like the eyes had pushed into my eyes."
Barney described the beings as generally similar to Betty's hypnotic, not dream recollection.
The beings often stared into his eyes, said Barney, with a terrifying, mesmerizing effect.
Under hypnosis, Barney said things like, "Oh, those eyes. They're there in my brain" (from his first hypnosis session) and "I was told to close my eyes because I saw two eyes coming close to mine, and I felt like the eyes had pushed into my eyes" (from his second hypnosis session) and "All I see are these eyes... I'm not even afraid that they're not connected to a body.
They're just there. They're just up close to me, pressing against my eyes."
Barney related that he and Betty were taken onto the disc-shaped craft, where they were separated.
He was escorted to a room by three of the men and told to lie on a small rectangular exam table.
Unlike Betty, Barney's narrative of the exam was fragmented, and he continued to keep his eyes closed for most of the exam.
A cup-like device was placed over his genitals.
He did not experience an orgasm though Barney thought that a sperm sample had been taken.
The men scraped his skin, and peered in his ears and mouth.
A tube or cylinder was inserted in his anus.
Someone felt his spine, and seemed to be counting his vertebrae.
While Betty reported extended conversations with the beings in English, Barney said that he heard them speaking in a mumbling language he did not understand.
Betty also mentioned this detail. The few times they communicated with him, Barney said it seemed to be "thought transference"; at that time, he was unfamiliar with the word "telepathy".
Both Betty and Barney stated that they hadn't observed the beings' mouths moving when they communicated in English with them.
He recalled being escorted from the ship, and taken to his car, which was now near the road rather than in the woods.
In a daze, he watched the ship leave.
Barney remembered a light appearing on the road, and he said, "Oh no, not again."
He recalled Betty's speculation that the light might have been the moon, though the moon had in fact set several hours earlier.
He also stated that he attempted to produce the code-like buzzing sounds which seemed to strike the car's trunk a second time by driving from side to side and stopping and starting the vehicle.
His attempt was unsuccessful.

Betty's Sessions

Under hypnosis, Betty's account was very similar to the events of her five dreams about the UFO abduction, but there were also notable differences.
Under hypnosis, her capture and release were different.
The technology on the craft was different.
The short men had a significantly different physical appearance than the ones in her dreams.
The sequential order of the abduction event was also different than in Betty's dream account.
She filled in many details that were not in her dreams and contradicted some of her dream content.
It is interesting that Barney's and Betty's memories in hypnotic regression were consistent but contradicted some of the information in Betty's dreams.
Betty exhibited considerable emotional distress during her capture and examination.
Dr. Simon ended one session early because tears were flowing down her cheeks and she was in considerable agony.
Dr. Simon gave Betty the post hypnotic suggestion that she could sketch a copy of the "star map" that she later described as a three dimensional projection similar to a hologram.
She hesitated, thinking she would be unable to accurately depict the three-dimensional quality of the map she says she saw on the ship.
Eventually, however, she did what Simon suggested.
Although she said the map had many stars, she drew only those that stood out in her memory.
Her map consisted of twelve prominent stars connected by lines and three lesser ones that formed a distinctive triangle.
She said she was told the stars connected by solid lines formed "trade routes", whereas dashed lines were to less-traveled stars.

Dr. Simon's Conclusions

After extensive hypnosis sessions, Dr. Simon concluded that Barney's recall of the UFO encounter was a fantasy inspired by Betty's dreams.
Though Simon admitted this hypothesis did not explain every aspect of the experience, he thought it was the most plausible and consistent explanation.
Barney rejected this idea, noting that while their memories were in some regards interlocking, there were also portions of both their narratives that were unique to each.
Barney was now ready to accept that they had been abducted by the occupants of a UFO, though he never embraced it as fully as Betty did.
Though the Hills and Simon disagreed about the nature of the case, they all concurred that the hypnosis sessions were effective: the Hills were no longer tormented by anxiety about the UFO encounter.
Afterwards, Simon wrote an article about the Hills for the journal Psychiatric Opinion, explaining his conclusions that the case was a singular psychological aberration.

Publicity After the Hypnosis Sessions

The Hills went back to their regular lives.
They were willing to discuss the UFO encounter with friends, family and the occasional UFO researcher, but the Hills apparently made no effort to seek publicity, but on October 25, 1965, a newspaper story changed everything:
A front page story on the 'Boston Traveler' asked "UFO Chiller: Did THEY Seize Couple?"
Reporter John H. Lutrell of the Traveler had allegedly been given an audio tape recording of the lecture the Hills had made in Quincy Center in late 1963.
Lutrell learned that the Hills had undergone hypnosis with Dr. Simon; he also obtained notes from confidential interviews the Hills had given to UFO investigators.
On October 26, the UPI picked up Lutrell's story, and the Hills earned international attention.
In 1966, writer John G. Fuller secured the cooperation of the Hills and Dr. Simon, and wrote the book 'The Interrupted Journey' about the case.
The book included a copy of Betty's sketch of the "star map".
The book was a quick success, and went through several printings.
Barney died of a cerebral hemorrhage on February 25, 1969, at age 46; Betty Hill died of cancer on October 17, 2004, at age 85.

Analyzing the Star Map

In 1968, Marjorie Fish of Oak Harbor, Ohio read Fuller's Interrupted Journey.
She was an elementary school teacher and amateur astronomer. Intrigued by the "star map", Fish wondered if it might be "deciphered" to determine which star system the UFO came from. Assuming that one of the fifteen stars on the map must represent the Earth's Sun, Fish constructed a three-dimensional model of nearby Sun-like stars using thread and beads, basing stellar distances on those published in the 1969 'Gliese Star Catalogue'.
Studying thousands of vantage points over several years, the only one that seemed to match the Hill map was from the viewpoint of the double star system of Zeta Reticuli.
Distance information needed to match three stars, forming the distinctive triangle Hill said she remembered, was not generally available until the 1969 'Gliese Catalogue' came out.
Fish sent her analysis to Webb.
Agreeing with her conclusions, Webb sent the map to Terence Dickinson, editor of the popular magazine Astronomy.
Dickinson did not endorse Fish and Webb's conclusions, but for the first time in the journal's history, Astronomy invited comments and debate on a UFO report, starting with an opening article in the December 1974 issue.
For about a year afterwards, the opinions page of Astronomy carried arguments for and against Fish's star map.

Notable was an argument made by Carl Sagan and Steven Soter, arguing that the seeming "star map" was little more than a random alignment of chance points.
In contrast, those more favourable to the map, such as Dr. David Saunders, a statistician who had been on the Condon UFO study, argued that unusual alignment of key Sun-like stars in a plane centered around Zeta Reticuli (first described by Fish) was statistically improbable to have happened by chance from a random group of stars in our immediate neighborhood.
Skeptic Robert Sheaffer, in an accompanying article said that a map devised by Charles W. Atterberg, about the same time as Fish, was an even better match to Hill's map and made more sense.
The base stars, Epsilon Indi and Epsilon Eridani, plus the others were also closer to the Sun than the Hill map. Fish counterargued that the base stars in the Atterberg map were considered much less likely to harbor life than Zeta Reticuli and the map lacked a consistent grouping of Sun-like stars along the lined routes.
In 1993, two German crop circle enthusiasts, Joachim Koch and Hans-Jürgen Kyborg, suggested that the map depicted planets in the solar system, not nearby stars.
The objects in the map, they said, closely match the positions of the Sun, the six inner planets and several asteroids around the time of the incident.
This would parallel other abduction accounts where witnesses claim to be shown such depictions, though admittedly often elaborate and unmistakably our own solar system.

Interrupted Journey

The 1966 publication of 'Interrupted Journey', by John G. Fuller, details much of the Hills' claims.
Excerpts of the book were published in 'Look' magazine, and 'Interrupted Journey' went on to sell many copies and greatly publicize the Hills' account.
Betty's niece Kathleen Marden explored Fuller's themes along with scientist Stanton T. Friedman in her book 'Captured ! - The Betty and Barney Hill UFO Experience'.
Marden knew Betty well and had spoken with her at great length about the encounter.
Later, Betty claimed to have seen UFOs a number of times after the initial abduction, and she "became a celebrity in the UFO community."